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Activated sludge processes essentially involve a phase in which the water to be purified is brought into contact with a bacterial floc in the presence of oxygen (aeration). This is then followed by a phase of separation from the floc (clarification). These processes actually represent an intensification of a natural phenomenon, differing only due to the increased oxygen demand created by higher concentrations of micro-organisms. Biomass separated in the clarification tank is partly recycled to the aeration stage, while the remainder goes to a sludge treatment line.The general process control method is to monitor sludge blanket level, SVI (Sludge Volume Index), MCRT (Mean Cell Residence Time), F/M (Food to Microorganism), as well as the biota of the activated sludge and the major nutrients DO (Dissolved oxygen), nitrogen, phosphate, BOD (Biochemical oxygen demand), and COD (Chemical oxygen demand). In the reactor/aerator and clarifier system, the sludge blanket is measured from the bottom of the clarifier to the level of settled solids in the clarifier's water column; this, in large plants, can be done up to three times a day.

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